**CIRCLES AND VERNIERS.-** The hori-zontal and vertical circles and their verniers are the parts of the engineer’stransitbywhich the values of horizontal and vertical angles are determined. A stadia arc is also included with the vertical circle on some transits.

The horizontal circle and verniers of the transit that are issued to SEABEE units are graduated to give least readings of either 1 min or 20 sec of arc. The horizontal circle is mounted on the lower plate. It is graduated to 15 min for the 20-sec transit (fig. 11-8) and 30 min for the 1-min transit (fig. 11-9). The plates are numbered from 0 o to 360 o , starting with a common point and running both ways around the circle. Two double verniers, known as the A and B verniers, are mounted on the upper plate with their indexes at circle readings 180 o apart. A double vernier is one that can be read in both directions from the index line. The verniers reduce the circle graduations to the final reading of either 20 sec or 1 min.

**Figure 11-9.-Horizontal scales, 1-minute transit.**

The A vernier is used when the telescope is in its normal position, and the B vernier is used when the telescope is plunged.

The VERTICAL CIRCLE of the transit (fig. 11-10) is fixed to the horizontal axis so it will rotate with the telescope. The vertical circle normally is graduated to 30� with 10 o numbering. Each quadrant is numbered from 0 o to 90 o ; the 00 graduations define a horizontal plane, and the 90 o graduations lie in the vertical plane of the instrument. The double vernier used with the circle is attached to the left standard of the transit, and its least reading is 1�. The left half of the double vernier is used for reading angles of depression, and the right half of this vernier is used for reading angles of elevation. Care must be taken to read the vernier in the direction that applies to the angle observed.

In addition to the vernier, the vertical circle may have an H and V (or HOR and VERT) series of graduations, called the STADIA ARC (fig. 11-10). The H scale is adjusted to read 100 when the line of sight is level, and the graduations decrease in both directions from the level line. The other scale, V, is graduated with 50 at level, to 10 as the telescope is depressed, and to 90 as it is elevated.

Figure 11-10.-Vertical circle with verniers, scales, and stadia arc.

The VERNIER, or vernier scale, is an auxiliary device by which a uniformly graduated main scale can be accurately read to a fractional part of a division. Both scales may be straight as on a leveling rod or curved as on the circles of a transit. The vernier is uniformly divided, but each division is either slightly smaller (direct vernier) or slightly larger (retrograde vernier) than a division of the main scale (fig. 11-11). The amount a vernier division differs from a division of the main scale determines the smallest reading of the scale that can be made with the particular vernier. This smallest reading is called the LEAST COUNT of the vernier. It is determined by dividing the value of the smallest division on the scale by the number of divisions on the vernier.