All surfaces for painting shall be properly sand papered and cleaned and where necessary good quality putty shall be used to hide all holes, cracks, open joints etc. The rate for painting includes such work.Paint shall be applied with approved brushes and surfaces shall be sand papered after every coat. All work when completed shall present a smooth, clean solid and uniform surface, to the satisfaction of the Engineer￾in-Charge.

(a) Primer : All surfaces for painting, if they are new, should have a coat of priming before application of the paint. Old surfaces where existing paints have been completely worn out owing to long use should also receive a coat of priming before application of fresh painting.

(i) Wood primer: Wood primer of approved brand and manufacture is to be applied on the wooden surface which would be free from moisture and loose particles.

(ii) Steel Primer : For steel surface red oxide primer, zinc chromate primer of approved brand and manufacture and as per direction of the Engineer-in-Charge is to be applied on the surface. The surface should be made free of grease, rust, moisture and loose particles.

(iii) Acrylic Primer Coat (solvent based Primer) : Acrylic primer coat is to be used as base coat on wall finish of cement, lime or lime cement plaster surface before application of any wall coating e.g. distemper, oil based paints, synthetic enamel, acrylic emulsion etc. on them. Priming coat shall be preferably applied by brushing and not by spraying. Hurried priming shall be avoided particularly on absorbent surface. New plaster patches in old work before applying distemper paints etc. should also be treated with acrylic primer. The surface shall then be allowed to dry for at least 48 hours. It shall then be sand papered to give a smooth and even surface. Any unevenness shall be made good by applying putty, made of plaster of paris mixed with water on the entire surface including filling up the undulation and then Sand papering the same after it is dry. The cement primer shall be applied with a brush on the clean dry and smooth surface. Horizontal strokes shall be given first, vertical strokes shall be applied immediately afterwards. The entire operation will constitute one coat. The surface shall be finished as uniformly as possible leaving no brush marks. It shall be allowed to dry for at least 48 hours before oil bound distemper or paint is applied.
(b) Synthetic Enamel Paint: Synthetic enamel paint of approved brand and manufacture and of the required shade shall be used for the top coat and an undercoat of shade to match the coat as recommended by the manufacturer shall be used. Undercoat of the specified paints of shade suited to the shade of the top coat shall be applied and allowed to dry overnight. It shall be rubbed next day
with the fine grade of wet abrasive paper to ensure a smooth and even surface free from brush marks and all loose particles dusted off. Top coats of specified paint of the desired shade shall be applied after the undercoat is thoroughly dry. Additional finishing coats shall be applied if found necessary to
ensure properly uniform glossy surface.
(C) Aluminium Paint : Aluminium paint of approved brand and manufacture shall be used. The paint comes in compact dual containers with the paste and the medium separately. The two shall be mixed together to proper consistency before use. Each coat shall be allowed to dry for 24 hours and lightly rubbed down with fine grade sand paper and dusted before the next coat is applied. The finished surface shall present an even and uniform appearance. As aluminium paint is likely to settle in the container, care shall be taken to frequently stir the paint during use. Also the paint shall be applied
and laid off quickly, as surface is otherwise not easily finished.

(d) Interior Acrylic Emulsion Paint : Acrylic emulsion paint are not suitable for application on external surface and surface which are liable to heavy condensation and are be used generally on internal surface. For plastered surfaces a cement priming coat is required before application of acrylic emulsion. Acrylic emulsion paint of approved brand and manufacture and of the required shade shall be used. The paint will be applied in the usual manner with brush or roller.
The paint dries by evaporation of the water content and as soon as the water has evaporated the film gets hard and the next coat can be applied. The time for drying varies from one hour on absorbent surfaces to 2 to 3 hours on non-absorbent surfaces. The thinning of emulsion is to be done with water and not with turpentine. Thinning with water will be particularly required for the undercoat which is applied on the absorbent surface. The quantity of thinner to be added shall be as per manufacturer’s instructions. The surface on finishing shall present a flat, velvety, smooth finish. If necessary more coats will be applied till the surface present a uniform appearance.
Presautions : (i) Old brushes if they are to be used with emulsion paints should be completely dried of turpentine or oil paints by washing in warm soap water. Brushes should be quickly washed in water, immediately after use and kept immersed in water during break periods to prevent the paint from hardening on the brush.
(ii) In the preparation of walls for Acrylic emulsion painting, an oil base putty shall be used in filling cracks, holes etc.
(iii) Splashes in floor etc. shall be cleaned out without delay as they will be difficult remove
after hardening.
(iv) Washing of surfaces treated with emulsion paints shall not be done within 3 to 4 weeks of application.
(e) Varnishing : Varnish for the undercoat shall be a flatting varnish of the same manufacture as the top coats. New wood work to be varnished shall be finished smooth with a carpenter’s plane. Knots shall be cut to a slight depth. Cracks and holes shall be cleaned of dust. The knots, cracks etc. shall then be filled in with woodputty. The varnish shall be applied liberally with a full brush and spread evenly with short light strokes to avoid frothing. If the work is vertical the varnish shall be crossed and recrossed and then laid off, the later being finished on the upstroke so that varnish, as it sets, flows down and eliminates brush marks. The above process will constitute one coat. If the surface is horizontal, varnish shall be worked in every direction with light quick strokes and finished in one definite direction so that it will set without showing brush marks. Rubbing down and fatting the surface shall be done after each coat except the final coat with fine sand paper. The work shall be allowed to dry away from draughts and damp air. The finished surface shall then present a uniform appearance and fine glossy surface free from streaks, blisters etc. Any varnish left over in the small container shall not be poured back into the stock tin, as it will render the latter unfit for use. Special fine haired varnishing brush shall be used and not ordinary paint brushes. Brushes shall be well worn and perfectly clean.

Oiling with Raw Linseed Oil : Raw linseed oil shall be lightly viscous but clear and of a yellowish colour with light brown tinge. Its specific gravity at a temperature of 300 C shall be between 0.293 and 0.298. The oil shall be mellow and sweet to the taste with very little smell. The oil shall be of sufficiently matured quality. Oil turbid or thick, with acid and bitter taste and rancid odour and which remains sticky for a considerable time shall be rejected. The oil shall be of approved brand and manufacture. The wood work shall be cleaned of all smoke and water and completely dried. The oil shall be applied freely with brushes (not rags) and spread evenly and smooth until no more oil is absorbed. Each subsequent coat shall be applied after the previons coat is thoroughly dried and in any case not before 24 hours of application of the first coat. Work after completion shall not be patchy and sticky to the touch and shall present a uniform appearance.
(g) Wax polishing : Wax polishing shall be done with material of approved brand and manufacture. Preparation of surface will be same as for varnishing. The polish shall be applied evenly with a clean soft pad of cotton cloth is such a way that the surface is completely and fully covered. The surface is then rubbed continuously for half an hour. When the surface is quite dry, a second coat shall be applied in the same manner and rubbed continuously for one hour or until the surface is dry. The final coat shall then be applied and rubbed for two hours (more if necessary) until the surface has assumed a uniform gloss and is dry, showing no sign of stickiness. The final polish depends largely on the amount of rubbing which should be continuous and with uniform pressure with frequently changes in the direction.
(h) French Polishing : Pure shellac varying from pale orange to lemon yellow colour, free from resin or dirt shall be dissolved in methylated spirit at the rate of 150 gm. of shellac to a litre of spirit. Suitable pigment shall be added to get required shade. The surface shall be cleaned. All unevenness shall be rubbed down smooth with sand paper and well dusted. Knots if visible shall be covered with a preparation of red lead and glue size laid on while hot. Holes and indentations on the surface shall be stopped with glaziers putty. The surface shall then be given a coat of wood filler made by mixing whiting (ground chalk) in methylated spirit at the
rate of 1.4 kg. of whiting per litre of spirit. The surface shall again be rubbed down perfectly smooth with glass paper and wiped clean. A pad of woolen cloth covered by a fine cloth shall be used to apply the polish. The pad shall be moistened with the polish and rubbed hard on the wood in a series of overlapping circles applying the mixture sparingly but uniformly over the entire area of an even level surface. A trace of linseed oil on the face of the pad facilitates this operation. The surface shall be allowed to dry and the remaining coats applied in the same way. To finish off, the pad shall be covered with a fresh piece of clean fine cotton cloth, slightly damped with methylated spirit and rubbed lightly and quickly with circular motions. The finished surface shall have a uniform texture and high gloss.