MEAN SEA LEVEL AND ITS USED AS DATUM
For all important surveys, the datum selected is the mean sea level at a certain place. The mean sea level may be defined as the mean level of the sea, obtained by taking the mean of all the height of the tide, as measured at hourly intervals over some stated period covering a whole number of complete tides, The mean sea level, defined above shows appreciable variations from day to day, from month to month and from year to year. Hence the period for which observations should be taken depends upon the purpose for which levels are required. The daily changes in the level of sea may be more. The monthly changes are more or less periodic. The mean sea level in particular month may be low while it may be high in some other moths. Mean sea level may also show appreciable variations in its annual values. Due to variations in the annual values and due to greater accuracy needed in modern geodetic
levelling, it is essential to base the mean sea level on observations extending over a period of about 19 years. During this period, the moon’s nodes complete one entire revolution. The
height of mean sea level so determined is referred to the datum of tide gauge at which the observations are taken. The point or place at which these observations are taken is known as a tidal station. If the observations are taken on two stations, situated say at a distance of 200 to 500 kms on an open coast, one of the station is called primary tidal station while the other is called secondary tidal station. Both the stations may then be connected by a line of levels.