**MCQ OF STEEL STRUCTURE DESIGN**

1.When a body is subjected to a system of loads as a result of this, some deformation takes place. If the resistance is set up against this deformation, the body is known as

- compressed member
- tensile member
- structure (Ans)
- all of these

2.If the width and thickness of a structure is small in comparison to its length, it is known as

- One dimensional structure (Ans)
- two dimensional structure
- three dimensional structure
- none of these

3.A skeleton structure is one in which the member is represented by a

- circular curve
- straight curve
- line (Ans)
- all of these

4.A two dimensional structure is also called……………..structure.

- line supporting
- surface (Ans)
- space

5.A space structure is also called……………..dimensional structure.

- One
- Two
- Three (Ans)

6.The structure large in two dimensions and small in third dimension, is called a

- Supporting structure
- Surface structure (Ans)
- Space structure
- None of these

7.The main advantage of a steel member is that it

- Has high strength
- Is gas and water tight
- Has long service life
- All of these (Ans)

8.The type of rolled steel section mainly used as structural member is

- Rolled steel I-section
- Rolled steel channel section
- Rolled steel T-section
- All of these (Ans)

9.As per Indian standards, rolled steel I-section are classified into

- Four series
- Five series (Ans)
- Six series
- Seven series

10.The outer and inner faces of a rolled steel beam section are inclined to each other and they intersect at a certain angle. This angle of intersection for Indian standard medium weight beams is

- 4
^{o} - 8
^{o}(Ans) - 16
^{o} - 20
^{o}

11.The rolled steel beams are mainly used

- In the built up sections of columns
- To resist bending
- To resist axial forces (compressive or tensile)
- All of the above (Ans)

12.The channels are subjected to torsion because of the absence of symmetry of the section with regards to the axis…………….to the web.

- Parallel (Ans)
- Perpendicular

13.Junction between the flange and web of a beam is known as

- Lap joint
- Butt joint
- Fillet (Ans)
- Shear joint

14.The rolled steel flats are used as…………………members.

- Tension (Ans)
- Compression

15.The brittleness of steel………………..with the increase of percentage of carbon.

- Increases (Ans)
- Decreases

16.The dead load includes

- Self-weight of the structure (Ans)
- All superimposed loads
- Weight of stationary equipments
- Weight of furniture

- The dead loads

- Change their position (Ans)
- Do not Change their position
- Vary in magnitude(Ans)
- Do not Vary in magnitude

18.When a load is exerted or transferred from one surface to another in contact, the stress is known as

- Direct stress
- Bending stress
- Bearing stress (Ans)
- Shear stress

19.The bearing stress is calculated on the

- Cross-sectional area of contact
- Net-projected area of contact (Ans)
- Mean of cross-sectional area and net-projected area of contact
- None of the above

20.The allowable stress to which structural member can be subjected is called

- Working stress (Ans)
- Permissible stress(Ans)
- Tensile stress
- Bearing stress

21.The working stress is the stress which may be developed in the member

- Causing structural damage to it
- Causing residual strain
- Without causing structural damage to it (Ans)
- None of these

22.Factor of safety is the number by which the yield stress of material is divided to give the

- Bearing stress
- Bending stress
- Shear stress
- Working stress (Ans)

23.The value of factor of safety is decided keeping in view

- Average strength of material
- Value of design loads
- Value of internal forces
- All of these (Ans)

24.For a greater value of factor of safety, a………………..cross-section of the member has to be adopted.

- Small
- Large (Ans)

25.Shear modulus of elasticity is also known as

- Modulus of elasticity
- Bulk modulus of elasticity
- Modulus of rigidity (Ans)
- Tangent modulus of elasticity

26.The ratio of transverse strain to the longitudinal strain under an axial load is known as

- Tangent modulus of elasticity
- Bulk modulus of elasticity
- Modulus of rigidity
- Poisson’s ratio (Ans)

27.The value of Poisson’s ratio for steel within the elastic region ranges from

- 17 to 0.25
- 25 to 0.33 (Ans)
- 33 to 0.41
- 41 to 0.49

28.The strength at which steel fails under repeated applications of load,is known as

- Impact strength
- Tensile strength
- Yield strength
- Fatigue strength (Ans)

29.The stability of a structure is ensured if the restoring moment is…………………the maximum overturning moment.

- Equal to
- Smaller than
- Greater than (Ans)

30.A piece of round steel forged in place to connect two or more steel members is known as a

- Bolt
- Rivet (Ans)
- Screw
- Stud

31.The size of rivet is expressed by the

- Length of shank
- Diameter of shank (Ans)
- Type of head
- All of these

32.The hot driven rivets are

- Power driven shop rivets
- Hand driven rivets
- Power driven field rivets
- All of these (Ans)

33.The rivets which are driven at atmospheric temperature, are known as

- Power driven shop rivets
- Hand driven rivets
- Power driven field rivets
- Cold driven rivets (Ans)

34.The Power driven shop rivets are………………..as compared to Power driven field rivets

- Weaker (Ans)
- Stronger

35.The diameter of cold driven rivets ranges from

- 6 to 12 mm
- 12 to 22 mm (Ans)
- 22 to 32 mm
- 32 to 42 mm

36.Which of the following statement is correct ?

- Snap heads are used for rivets connecting structural members.
- Snap head is also termed as button head.
- Counter sunk heads are used to provide a flush surface
- All of the above (Ans)

37.The strength of rivet…………….in the cold driving.

- Increases (Ans)
- Decreases

38.For rivet diameters upto 24 mm, the diameter of rivet hole is larger than the diameter of rivet by

- 1 mm
- 5 mm (Ans)
- 2 mm
- 5 mm

39.The diameter of a rivet hole is made larger than the diameter of the rivet by 2 mm for rivet diameters

- Upto 12 mm
- Upto 15 mm
- Upto 24 mm
- Exceeding 24 mm (Ans)

40.The diameter of the cold rivet measured before driving is known as………………….diameter of rivet.

- Nominal (Ans)
- Gross

41.A steel plate is 300 mm wide and 10 mm thick. A rivet of nominal diameter 18 mm is driven . The net sectional area of the plate is

- 1800 mm
^{2} - 2805 mm
^{2 }(Ans) - 2820 mm
^{2} - 3242 mm
^{2}

42.The distance between two consecutive rivets of adjacent chains and measured at right angles to the direction of the force in the structural member, is known as

- Pitch of rivet
- Staggered pitch of rivet
- Gauge distance of rivet (Ans)
- Any one of these

43.The rivet line is also known as

- Scrieve line
- Back line
- Gauge line
- All of these (Ans)

44.The rivet line is an imaginary line along which the rivets are placed.

- True (Ans)
- False

45.The distance measured along one rivet line from the centre of a rivet on it to the centre of the adjoining rivet on the adjacent parallel rivet line, is known as

- Staggered pitch
- Alternate pitch
- Reeled pitch
- Any one of these (Ans)

46.When one member is placed above the other and they are connected by means of rivets, the joint is known as

- Lap joint (Ans)
- Single cover butt joint
- Double cover butt joint
- None of these

47.Bending stress may develop in the case of

- Lap joint (Ans)
- Single cover butt joint
- Double cover butt joint
- All of these

48.The failure of a riveted joint may take place due to

- Shear failure of rivets
- Bearing failure of rivets
- Tearing failure of plates
- All of these (Ans)

- Bearing failure of rivets occurs when the rivet is crushed by the plate.

- Correct (Ans)
- Incorrect

50.The strength of a riveted joint is equal to the

- Strength of joint against shearing of the rivets
- Strength of joint against bearing of the rivets
- Strength of plate in tearing
- Least of the value obtained in (a), (b) and (c)

51.If the same number of rivets are used in the joints, then which of the following of the pattern will yield highest efficiency ?

- Chain riveting
- Zig – zag riveting
- Diamond riveting (Ans)
- All of these

52.Rivet value is equal to

- Strength of a rivet in shearing
- Strength of a rivet in bearing
- Minimum of the value obtained in (a) and (b) (Ans)
- Maximum of the value obtained in (a) and (b)

53.In designing a riveted joint, it is assumed that

- Load is uniformly distributed among all the rivets
- Rivet hole is completely filled by the rivet
- Friction between plates is neglected
- All of the above (Ans)

54.In the design of a riveted joint, the bearing stress is assumed to be uniform between the contact surfaces of plate and rivet.

- Yes (Ans)
- No

55.Minimum pitch in a riveted joint should not be

- Less than 200 mm
- More than 200 mm
- Greater than 2.5 times the gross diameter of the rivet
- Less than 2.5 times the gross diameter of the rivet (Ans)

56.When the line of rivets does not lie in the direction of stress, the maximum pitch in a riveted joint should not exceed

- 12
*t*or 200 mm whichever is less - 16
*t*or 200 mm whichever is less - 24
*t*or 300 mm whichever is less - 32
*t*or 300 mm whichever is less (Ans)

Where *t* = thickness of the thinner outside plate.

57.If the thickness of plate is *t* mm and the nominal diameter of rivet is *d* mm, then according to Unwin’s formula

*d =**t*

58.A structural member carrying a pull of 700 kN is connected to a

gusset plate using rivets. If the pulls required to shear the rivets, to crush the rivet and to tear the plate per pitch length are respectively 60 kN, 35 kN and 70 kN, then the number of rivets required will be

- 12
- 18
- 20 (Ans)
- 22

59.When the load line coincides with the centre of gravity of the rivet group, then the rivets are subjected to

- Shear only (Ans)
- Tension only
- Bending only
- Both shear and tension

60.In eccentric loaded riveted connections, the force resisting the moment in any rivet is inversely proportional to the distance of the centre of the rivet from the centre of gravity of the group of the rivets.

- True (Ans)
- False

61.The load on connection is not eccentric for

- Lap joint
- Single cover butt joint
- Double cover butt joint (Ans)
- All of these

62.The common assumption that ‘all rivets share equally a non – eccentric load’ is valid at a load

- Below the working load
- Equal to the working load
- Above the working load
- Equal to the failure load (Ans)

63.Arc welding is a

- Fusion welding (Ans)
- Pressure welding
- Thermit welding
- All of these

64.The effective throat thickness in case of incomplete penetration butt weld is taken as

- 7/8th of the thickness of the thicker part joined
- 7/8th of the thickness of the thinner part joined (Ans)
- 5/7th of the thickness of the thicker part joined
- 5/7th of the thickness of the thinner part joined

65.The effective area of a butt weld is taken as the…………….. of the effective throat thickness and the effective length of butt weld.

- Sum
- Difference
- Product (Ans)
- Ratio

66.The effective length of a butt weld is the length for which the throat thickness of the weld exists.

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

67.A butt weld is specified by

- Leg length
- Plate thickness
- Effective throat thickness
- Penetration thickness (Ans)

68.The effective length of intermittent butt weld is taken not less than

- Four times the thickness of the thicker part joined
- Four times the thickness of the thinner part joined (Ans)
- Sixteen times the thickness of the thicker part joined
- sixteen times the thickness of the thinner part joined

69.Intermediate butt welds are used to resist

- shear stresses (Ans)
- dynamic stresses
- alternate stresses
- all of these

70.The longitudinal space between the effective length of intermittent butt welds is taken not more than

- Four times the thickness of the thicker part joined
- Four times the thickness of the thinner part joined
- Sixteen times the thickness of the thicker part joined
- sixteen times the thickness of the thinner part joined (Ans)

71.A fillet weld is known as a standard fillet weld when its cross – section is

- square
- circular
- 45
^{o}isosceles triangle (Ans) - 30
^{o }and 60^{o}triangle

72.In a fillet weld, throat is the

- Minimum dimension (Ans)
- Maximum dimension
- Average dimension
- Leg of weld

73.The reinforcement of butt weld

- Is ignored in calculating stresses
- Increases efficiency of joint
- Should not exceed 3 mm
- All of these a(Ans)

74.The weakest plane in a fillet weld is

- A side parallel to the force
- A side normal to the force
- Along the throat (Ans)
- Normal to the throat

75.A fillet weld whose axis is at right angles to the direction of the applied load is known as

- Side fillet weld
- End fillet weld (Ans)
- Diagonal fillet weld
- All of these

76.A fillet weld stressed in transverse shear is known as

- Side fillet weld
- End fillet weld (Ans)
- Diagonal fillet weld
- All of these

77.The size of deep penetration fillet weld is specified as minimum leg length* plus*

- 2 mm
- 4 mm (Ans)
- 6 mm
- 8 mm

78.When the minimum size of the fillet weld is greater than the thickness of the thinner part, th minimum size of the weld should be……………….the thickness of thinner part.

- Equal to (Ans)
- Less than
- More than

79.The effective length of a fillet weld is taken as

- The actual length
*plus*twice the size of weld - The actual length
*minus*twice the size of weld (Ans) - The actual length
*plus*thrice the size of weld - The actual length
*plus*thrice the size of weld

80.The effective length of fillet weld should not be less than

- The size of weld
- Two times The size of weld
- Three times The size of weld
- four times The size of weld (Ans)

81.For two plates of equal thickness, full strength of fillet can be ensured if its maximum size, for square edge, is limited to

- 5 mm less than the thickness (Ans)
- 75 % of the thickness
- 80 % of the thickness
- Thickness of the plate

82.A structural member subjected to compressive force in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis, is called

- Column
- Post
- Stanchion
- Any one of these (Ans)

83.Which of the following is not a compression member ?

- Strut
- Tie (Ans)
- Rafter
- Boom

84.A strut is a structural member subjected to

- Tension in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis
- Tension in a direction perpendicular to its longitudinal axis
- Compression in a direction parallel to its longitudinal axis (Ans)
- Compression in a direction perpendicular to its longitudinal axis

85.When compression members are overloaded, then their failure takes place because of

- Direct compression
- Excessive bending
- Bending combined with twisting
- Any one of these (Ans)

86.The axial load which is sufficient to keep the column in a slight deflected shape is called

- Critical load
- Crippling load
- Buckling load
- Any one of these (Ans)

87.The failure of a column depends upon

- Weight on column
- Length of column
- Cross – sectional area of column
- Slenderness ratio of column (Ans)

88.When the cross – sectional area of the column is kept constant, the load required to cause failure due to direct compression……….as the length of column increases.

- Increases
- Decreases (Ans)

89.The term strut is commonly used for………………….members in roof trusses.

- Compression (Ans)
- Tension

90.A strut is a compression member which is

- Small in length
- Loaded lightly
- Vertical or inclined
- All of these (Ans)

91.In position restraint condition of column

- End of the column is free to change its position
- Rotation about the end of column cannot take place
- End of column is not free to change its position (Ans)
- Rotation about the end of column can take place

92.In direction restraint condition of column

- End of the column is free to change its position (Ans)
- Rotation about the end of column cannot take place (Ans)
- End of column is not free to change its position
- Rotation about the end of column can take place

93.Effective length of a column is the length between the points of

- Maximum moments
- Zero shear
- Zero moments (Ans)
- None of these

- Effective length of a column (
*L*), held in position at both ends but not restained in direction, is equal to

- 67
*L* - 85
*L* *L*(Ans)- 2
*L*

Where *L = *length of column

- . Effective length of a column (
*L*), held in position and restrained in direction at one end and the other end effectively restrained in direction but not held in position, is equal to

- 67
*L* - 85
*L* *L*- 2
*L*(Ans)

96.Slenderness ratio of a compression member is the ratio of effective length of the compression member to the

- Area of cross – section
- Moment of inertia
- Radius of gyration (Ans)
- Critical load

97.Four vertical columns of the same material, height and weigth have the same end conditions. The buckling load will be the largest for a column having the cross – section of

- A solid square
- A thin hollow circle (Ans)
- A solid circle
- An I – section

98.The slenderness ratio of a single angle single strut should be less than

- 180 (Ans)
- 250
- 300
- 350

99.maximum slenderness ratio of a compression member which carry loads resulting from wind or seismic forces only, is

- 180
- 250 (Ans)
- 300
- 350

100.The maximum slenderness ratio of a compression member which carry loads resulting from…………..is 180.

- Dead loads and superimposed load (Ans)
- Wind loads

101.The average axial stress in the column at the time of its failure is……………the yield strength of the material.

- Equal to
- Less than (Ans)
- More than

102.The Euler’s formula for columns is valid for

- Zero slenderness ratio
- Small slenderness ratio
- Large slenderness ratio (Ans)
- All of these

103.The effective length of a structural steel compression member of length* L *effectively held in position and restained against rotation at one end but neither held in position not restrained against rotation at the other end, is

*L*- 2
*L* - 5
*L* - 2
*L*(Ans)

- The effective length of a column with one end effectively held in position and restrained against rotation and partially restrained against rotation but not held in position at the other end is

- 65
*L* - 8
*L* - 5
*L*(Ans) - 2
*L*

105.When the slenderness ratio for the column is less than or equal to the minimum slenderness ratio, then the failure of column occurs by…………….buckling.

- Elastic
- Inelastic (Ans)

106.Rankine – Gordon formula for buckling load is adopted for columns having slenderness ratio

- More than 120
- Less than 120
- More than 120 and less than 120 (Ans)
- None of these

107.The formula which takes into account any initial crookedness of the column and imperfectness of axial loading is

- Perry – Robertson formula
- Euler’s formula
- Secant formula (Ans)
- Rankine’s formula

108.Which of the following statement is correct ?

- A tubular section is most economical for the column free to buckle in any direction.
- The radius of gyration for the tubular section in all diections remains same.
- The solid round bar is less economical than the tubular section.
- All of the above (Ans)

- A tubular section of a column has………………local buckling strength.

- Low
- High (Ans)

110.Which of the following is a best compression member section ?

- Single angle section
- Double angle section
- I – section
- Tubular section (Ans)

111.The single rolled steel I – section and single rolled steel channel section are widely used as column.

- Agree
- Disagree (Ans)

112.The effective length of continuous compression members is adopted between …………… times the distance between centres of intersection.

- 7 and 1 (Ans)
- 1 and 1.3
- 3 and 1.6
- 6 and 2

113.When a single angle strut is connected to a gusset plate with one rivet, then the allowable working stress corresponding to the slenderness ratio of the member, is reduced to

- 60 %
- 70 %
- 80 % (Ans)
- 90 %

- When a single angle strut is connected with two or more member of rivets, its effective length is adopted as…………..times the length of the strut centre to centre of intersection of each end.

- 65
- 75
- 85 (Ans)
- 95

115.When a single angle strut is connected with two or more member of rivets, then the allowable working stress corresponding to the slenderness ratio of the member, is

- Reduced to 60 %
- Reduced to 80 %
- Reduced to 90 %
- Not Reduced

116.A discontinuous compression member extends between two adjacent joints only

- True (Ans)
- False

117.Tacking rivets in compression members are used, if the maximum distances between centres of two adjacent rivets exceeds

- 12
*t*or 200 mm whichever is less - 16
*t*or 200 mm whichever is less - 24
*t*or 300 mm whichever is less - 32
*t*or 300 mm whichever is less (Ans)

Where *t * = Thickness of outside plate

118.In case where cover plates are used, tacking rivets are provided at a pitch in line not exceeding…………………times the thickness of outside plate or 300 mm whichever is less.

- 8
- 16
- 32 (Ans)
- 64

119.When the plates are exposed to weather, the pitch in line should not exceed 16 times the thickness of outside plate or 200 mm whichever is less.

- Correct (Ans)
- Incorrect

120.The minimum radius of gyration of the single angle section is much……….other sections of same cross – sectional area.

- Less than (Ans)
- More than

121.The single angle sections are used for

- Small trusses and bracing
- Single plane trusses
- Trusses having gusset plates in one plane
- All of these (Ans)

122.The built – up sections are used because they provide

- Large cross – sectional area
- Special shape and depth
- Sufficient large radius of gyration
- All of these (Ans)

123.The roof trusses, the most frequently used section is

- Two – angle sections placed back to back (Ans)
- Two – channel sections placed back to back
- Two – channel sections placed at a distance apart
- Four angle section

124.When large radius of gyration is required, a two channel sections placed at a distance apart with flanges outward should be used

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

125.Allowable working stress for rolled steel beam section compression members may be assumed as

- 60 N/mm
^{2} - 80 N/mm
^{2} - 100 N/mm
^{2 }(Ans) - 120 N/mm
^{2}

- Allowable working stress for struts may be assumed as

- 60 N/mm
^{2 }(Ans) - 80 N/mm
^{2} - 100 N/mm
^{2 } - 120 N/mm
^{2}

127.The buckling load in a steel column is

- Related to the length (Ans)
- Directly proportional to slenderness ratio
- Inversely proportional to slenderness ratio
- Non – linearly to the slenderness ratio

128.The lateral system used in built – up columns, to carry the transverse shear force, is

- Lacing
- Batten plates
- Perforated plates
- Any one of these (Ans)

129.The common section used in lacing, is

- Rolled steel flat
- Rolled channel
- Rolled angle
- All of these (Ans)

130.A single triangular system is formed in the case of

- Single lacing (Ans)
- Double lacing
- Both (a) and (b)
- None of these

131.When the components of built – up column are connected by a lateral system, the reduction in buckling strength due to shear deflection is……………..that of solid built – up columns.

- Equal to
- Less than
- More than (Ans)

132.The angle of inclination of lacing bars with the longitudinal axis of the component member should not be

- Less than 40
^{o} - More than 70
^{o} - Both (a) and (b) (Ans)
- None of these

133.According to IS : 800 – 1984, lacing bars should resist a transverse shear equal to………………of the axial load in the member.

- 5 % (Ans)
- 5 %
- 5 %
- 10 %

134.Which of the following statement is wrong ?

- In single lacing, the thickness of flat lacing should not be more than 1/40th length between inner and rivets.
- In double lacing, the thickness of flat lacing should not be more than 1/60th length between inner and rivets.
- In riveted construction, effective length of lacing bars in single lacing is adopted as the length between inner and rivets.
- None of the above (Ans)

135.Slenderness ratio of the lacing bar for compression member should not exceed

- 125
- 135
- 145 (Ans)
- 155

136.In a double lacing, the lacing flats are placed to form a single triangular system.

- Yes
- No (Ans)

- In riveted construction, effective length of lacing bars in double lacing is adopted as………….. times the length between inner and rivets.

- 4
- 7 (Ans)
- 2
- 8

138.The battening is preferred when the

- Column is axially loaded
- Space between the two main components is not very large
- Both (a) and (b) (Ans)
- None of these

139.The batten plates used to connect the components of built – up column are designed to resist

- Longitudinal shear (Ans)
- Transverse shear
- Moment arising from transverse shear
- None of these

140.The number of batten plates should be such that it divides the column longitudinally in atleast…………………parts.

- Two
- Three (Ans)
- Four
- Five

141.The effective length of a battened columns should be increased by

- 5 %
- 10 % (Ans)
- 15 %
- 20 %

142.The thickness of bteen plate should be greater than 1/50th of the distance between the innermost connecting lines or welds.

- True (Ans)
- False

143.The perforated cover plates are particularly suitable for a built up box section consisting of

- Two angle sections
- Two channel sections
- Four angle sections (Ans)
- Four channel sections

- The perforated cover plates, the centre to centre distance between the perforations should not be

- Less than 1.5 times the length of perforation (Ans)
- more than 1.5 times the length of perforation
- Less than 2.5 times the length of perforation
- Less than 3.5 times the length of perforation

145.An eccentrically loaded column is subjected to

- Bending stress
- Direct stress
- Shear stress
- Both (a) and (b) (Ans)

146.The equivalent axial load is the load of sufficient magnitude to produce a stress equal to the…………..stress produced by the eccentric load.

- Maximum (Ans)
- Minimum

147.If* A * is the cross – sectional area of an eccentrically loaded column and z is the section modulus, then bending factor is equal to

*Z**/**A**A**/ Z*(Ans)*2A / Z**A /*2*Z*

148.A joint in the length of a column is known as

- Shear joint
- Load bearing joint
- Column splice (Ans)
- Compression joint

149.A column splice is used to increase the strength of a column.

- True
- False (Ans)

150.When the ends of the column are faced for bearing over the whole area, the rivets essential to hold the connected members are designed for……………axial load and other forces acting on the column

- 50 % (Ans)
- 75 %
- 85 %
- 100 %

151.Allowable working stress in compression in the column splice plates may be taken as

- 60 N/mm
^{2} - 80 N/mm
^{2} - 100 N/mm
^{2} - 125 N/mm
^{2 }(Ans)

152.Column splice plates may be assumed to act as short column of zero slenderness ratio.

- Agree (Ans)
- Disagree

153.The width of bearing plate is……………..the width of the flange of column.

- Equal to (Ans)
- Less than
- Greater than

154.The rivets connecting gusset plate and column section are in double shear.

- Correct
- Incorrect (Ans)

155.The intensity of pressure between column base (of width *B* and length *L* ) and concrete will be compressive throughout the length of column bar and will vary from zero to 2 P / *BL, *if the ratio of the moment (*M *) and axial load (*P *) is

- Greater than
*L*/*6* - equal to
*L*/*6*(Ans) - less than
*L*/*6* - none of these

156.When the ratio of the moment (*M*) and the axial load (*P*) is less than one – sixth the length of column base, then the intensity of bearing pressure between column base and concrete is………………throughout the length of column base.

- Tensile
- Compressive (Ans)

157.When the bearing capacity of the soil is poor, then…………….footing should be used as column footing.

- Independent
- Grillage (Ans)

158.In a grillage footing, the maximum bending moment occurs at the

- Edge of beam
- Edge of base plate
- Centre of beam (Ans)
- None of these

- .In a grillage footing, the maximum shear force occurs at the edge of base plate.

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

160.After 28 days, the cube strength of a grillage beam should not be less than

- 10 N/mm
^{2} - 12 N/mm
^{2} - 14 N/mm
^{2} - 16 N/mm
^{2}

161.In combined footing, the shape for the base of footing should be……………to support to equal column loads.

- Rectangular (Ans)
- Trapezoidal
- Triangular
- Circular

162.A structural member subjected to tensile force in the direction parallel to its longitudinal axis, is called

- A tension member
- A tie member
- A tie
- Any one of these (Ans)

163.The tension members are used as hangers for floors.

- Correct (Ans)
- Incorrect

164.The wire ropes

- Have the advantages of flexibility and strength
- Require special fittings for proper and connections
- Are used as guy wires with the steel towers
- All of the above (Ans)

165.A steel wire when used as a tie requires

- No prestressing
- Nominally prestressing (Ans)
- Pretensioning to its full capacity
- Prestressing to half it capacity

166.A steel rope when used as a tie requires no prestressing.

- True
- False (Ans)

167.Which of the following is not a tension member ?

- Cable
- Bar
- Tie
- Boom (Ans)

168.The single channel sections, used as tension member, have

- Low rigidity in the direction of web and high rigidity in the direction of flange
- High rigidity in the direction of web and low rigidity in the direction of flange (Ans)
- Equal rigidity in the direction of web and flange
- None of the above

169.The net area of a round bar which resists the tension is the area of cross – section at the

- Root of the thread (Ans)
- Crest of the thread
- Mid – section of the thread
- None of these

170.The net sectional area of a tension member is equal to

- Gross – sectional area
- Gross sectional area
*minus*the maximum deduction for rivet holes (Ans) - Gross sectional area
*plus*the maximum deduction for rivet holes - Two times the gross – sectional area

171.In a tension member, when one or more than one rivet hole is off the line, then the failure of plate depends upon

- Diameter of rivet hole
- Pitch of rivets
- Gauge of rivets
- All of these (Ans)

172.When the gauge distance is large as compared to the pitch, the failure of section occurs in a straight right angle section passing through rivet holes.

- Agree
- Disagree (Ans)

173.In a tension member,the failure will occur in zig – zag line if the gauge distance is…………pitch of rivets.

- Equal to
- Less than
- More than (Ans)

174.A tension member subjected to axial tension is designed on the basis of its

- Load carrying capacity
- Net sectional area (Ans)
- Gross – sectional area
- All of these

175.Net sectional area of a tension member is equal to

- Axial pull * allowable stress in axial tension
- Axial pull – allowable stress in axial tension
- Axial pull + allowable stress in axial tension
- None of the above

176.If the tension member is normally acting as a tie in roof truss but subjected to possible reversal of stress resulting from the action of wind, the member should have slenderness ratio not greater than

- 150
- 280
- 350 (Ans)
- 450

177.In order to determine the gross sectional area of a tension member consisting of two angle sections, the allowance for holes is made as

- One holes for each angle (Ans)
- Two holes for each angle
- three holes for each angle
- four holes for each angle

- In order to determine the gross sectional area of a tension member consisting of two laced channels, the allowance for holes is made as

- two holes from each flange
- two holes from each web
- two holes from each channel web or one hole from each flange, whichever is more (Ans)
- none of the above

179.A single angle steel tie is connected to gusset plates at both end using rivets. For determining the load carrying capacity of the tie, the allowable tensile stress should be multiplied by the

- gross area of the angle
- net area of the angle (Ans)
- net area of the connected leg
*plus*the effective area of the outstanding leg - effective area of the connected leg
*plus*the gross area of the outstanding leg

180.When a built – up tension member is made of four angles with or without plates, then the gross – sectional area is determined by making the allowance as two rivet holes for each angle and one rivet hole for every 150 mm width of the plate.

- True (Ans)
- False

- The load, which produces the average axial tensile stress in the section equivalent to the maximum combined stress at the extreme fibre of the section, is known as

- Equivalent axial tensile load (Ans)
- Buckling load
- Crippling load
- Critical load

182.Indian standards recommend that for a splice plate, rivets or bolts carrying calculated shear stress through a packing greater than 6 mm thick should be increased above the number required by normal calculations by

- 5 % for each 1 mm thickness of packing
- 5 % for each 1 mm thickness of packing
- 5 % for each 2 mm thickness of packing
- 5 % for each 2 mm thickness of packing (Ans)

183.A beam is a structural member subjected to……….loads.

- Axial
- Transverse (Ans)
- Axial and transverse

184.The main beam is a beam, which supports

- Floor construction
- Joists
- Secondary beam (Ans)
- None of these

185.Any major beam in a structure is known as a

- Subsidiary beam
- Joist
- Girder (Ans)
- Secondary beam

186.Joists support floor construction only

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

187.In the roof trusses, the horizontal beams spanning between the two adjacent trusses are known as

- Spandrel beams
- Rafters
- Purlins (Ans)
- All of these

188.The beams resting on purlins are known as

- Spandrel beams
- Rafters (Ans)
- Trimmers
- Stringers

189.The beams at the outside wall of a building, supporting its shear of the floor and also the wall upto the floor above it are known as rafters.

- Yes
- No (Ans)

190.The beam supporting the stair steps are called as

- Spandrel beams
- Rafters
- Trimmers
- Stringers (Ans)

191.A rolled I – section provides

- Large moment of inertia about
*X*– axis with less cross – sectional area - Large moment of resistance as compared to the other sections
- Greater lateral stability
- All of the above (Ans)

192.The rolled steel channel sections are used as purlins.

- True (Ans)
- False

193.In case of bending of beams about one axis, the load is considered to be applied through the shear centre (i.e. centre of area) of the beams sections

- Agree
- Disagree (Ans)

194.In angle and channel sections, the load………..through the shear centre

- Passes
- Does not pass (Ans)

195.When the load does not pass through the shear centre of the beam, it produces

- Torsional moment only
- Bending moment only
- Torsional moment along with the bending moment (Ans)
- None of the above

196.The banding stress in a beam at neutral axis is

- Zero (Ans)
- Minimum
- Maximum

197.When the load is acting downward in a simply supported beam, the bending stress is

- Maximum at the extreme fibre
- Compressive above the neutral axis
- Tensile above the neutral axis
- Both (a) and (b) (Ans)

- When the load on a simply supported beam is acting downward, the bending stress is……………………below the neutral axis.

- Tensile (Ans)
- Compressive

199.The shear stress in a beam at neutral axis is

- Zero
- Minimum
- Maximum (Ans)

200.For simply supported beam, shear force is maximum at the supports.

- Correct (Ans)
- Incorrect

201.The average shear stress for rolled beams is calculated by dividing the shear force at the cross – section by the

- Depth of beam
- Web thickness
- Gross – section of web (Ans)
- Width of flange

202.The average shear stress on the gross – section of web(when web buckling is not a factor) should not exceed

- 5 MPa
- 5 MPa
- 5 MPa (Ans)
- 5 MPa

203.The equivalent stress should be……………the maximum allowable equivalent stress.

- Less than (Ans)
- More than

204.The maximum allowable stress for rolled steel beams and channel is

- 5 MPa
- 5 MPa
- 5 MPa
- 5 MPa (Ans)

- The maximum deflection, for a simply supported beam, should not exceed

- 1/125 of span
- 1/225 of span
- 1/325 of span (Ans)
- 1/425 of span

206.A rectangular beam of width 200 mm and depth 300 mm is subjected to a shear force of 200 kN. The maximum shear stress produced in the beam is

- 33 MPa
- 0 MPa (Ans)
- 5 MPa
- 0 MPa

207.The large deflections in beam

- May result in cracking of ceiling plaster
- Indicate the lack of rigidity
- May cause the distortions in the connections
- All of the above (Ans)

208.The deflection of beam may be decreased by…………….the depth of beam.

- Increasing (Ans)
- Decreasing

209.The beam having lateral support from other members may buckle between points of lateral support.

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

210.The gross – section of the web of a beam is equal to

- Depth of beam / web thickness
- 2*depth of beam / web thickness
- Depth of beam * web thickness (Ans)
- None of these

211.The torsional restraint can be provided by providing

- Web of flange cleats in the end connections
- Bearing stiffeners acting in conjunction with the bearing of the beam
- External support to the end of the compression flange
- All of the above (Ans)

212.The effective length (*l *) of a simply supported beam with ends restrained against torsion and the end of compression flange fully restrained against lateral bending, is equal to

- 7
*L*(Ans) - 85
*L* *L*- 2
*L*

Where *L *= span of beam

- The effective length (
*l*) for cantilever beams built – in at the support with projecting length The effective length*L*and free at the end is equal to

- 5
*L* - 75
*L* - 85
*L*(Ans) *L*

- The effective length (
*l*) for cantilever beams continuous at the support with projecting length The effective length*L,*partially restrained against torsion at the support and free at the end, is equal to

- 5
*L* *L*- 2
*L*(Ans) - 3
*L*

215.In rolled steel beams, the failure of web occurs

- At the concentrated loads
- At the supports
- At a point where deflection is maximum
- Both (a) and (b) (Ans)

216.In web crippling,local buckling of the web occurs immediately adjacent to a concentration of stress.

- Yes (Ans)
- No

217.The allowable bearing stress for rolled steel beams is

- 128 N / mm
^{2} - 156 N / mm
^{2} - 189 N / mm
^{2 }(Ans) - 228 N / mm
^{2}

218.An out – of – plane web distortion is known as

- Web buckling
- Vertical Web buckling
- Column buckling
- All of these (Ans)

219.The failure of a web in which the web, vertically above bearing plate at the reaction or below a concentrated load is subjected to column action and tend to buckle under it, is known as

- Web buckling
- Vertical Web buckling
- Column buckling
- All of these (Ans)

220.A beam that is safe in web crippling will not be safe in web buckling.

- Agree
- Disagree (Ans)

221.Web crippling occurs due to

- Column action of web
- Failure of web under concentrated load (Ans)
- Excessive bending moment
- Secondary bending moment

222.The Web crippling and web buckling may be prevented by

- Increasing the thickness of web (Ans)
- Increasing the length of b bearing plates (Ans)
- Decreasing the thickness of web
- Decreasing the length of b bearing plates

225.In the riveted built – up beams, as allowable of about……………..of the area of cover plates is added to the calculated area.

- 10 % (Ans)
- 15 %
- 20 %
- 25 %

226.The load on a lintel is considered as uniformly distributed load, if the masonry above the lintel is upto a height of

- 5 times the effective span
- 75 times the effective span
- 25 times the effective span (Ans)
- 50 times the effective span

227.When a beam is connected to a stanchion by means of two angles riveted to them, the connection is known as

- Unstiffened seated connection
- Stiffened seated connection
- Framed connection (Ans)
- None of these

228.The unstiffened seated connections are used to transmit end reaction of beam upto

- 100 kN
- 150 kN (Ans)
- 200 kN
- 300 kN

229.In designing unstiffened seated connections, the length of seating angle is assumed to be…………….the width of flange of the beam.

- Equal to (Ans)
- Less than
- More than

- The stiffened seated connections are used when the end reaction of beam is less than 200 kN.

- True
- False (Ans)

- The designing seated connections, the outstanding og the stiffener angles should not exceed………………its thickness to avoid local buckling of the angles.

- 4 times
- 8 times
- 12 times
- 16 times (Ans)

232.In small moment resistant connection, if the pull on rivets is *P, *the gauge distance for connected leg of angle is g and the thickness of angle is *t *, then the bending moment (*M *) to be resisted by the angle for a single cantilever flexure, is equal to

*P (g + t)**P (g – t)*(Ans)- 2
*P (g + t)* - 2
*P (g – t)*

233.In the above question,the bending moment to be resisted by the angle for double cantilever flexure is half of the bending moment for single cantilever flexure.

- Correct (Ans)
- Incorrect

234.The steel beam of light sections placed in plain cement concrete are called

- Joists
- Simple joists
- Filler joists (Ans)
- Concrete joists

235.Spans of continuous fillers are considered approximately equal when the longest span does not exceed the shortest span by more than

- 5 %
- 10 %
- 15 % (Ans)
- 20 %

236.The spacing of filler joist centre to centre should not exceed………..the minimum thickness of the structural concrete slab having imposed load up to 2500 N/m^{3}.

- 6 times
- 7 times
- 8 times
- 9 times (Ans)

237.When the underside of the concrete is arched between the filler joists, the thickness at the crown should not be less than

- 50 mm (Ans)
- 70 mm
- 85 mm
- 100 mm

238.The bending moment for filler joists near the middle of endspan is

- +
*wl*/ 10 (Ans)^{2} - –
*wl*/ 10^{2} - +
*wl*/ 12^{2} - –
*wl*/ 12^{2}

Where w = dead load plus live load per unit length of span, and

L = span, centre to centre of supports

239.The span of filler joists centre to centre of supports, should not exceed……………..the depth from the underside of the joist to the top of the structural concrete.

- 15 times (Ans)
- 25 times
- 35 times (Ans)
- 45 times

240.In case of cantilever fillers, the span of filler joists centre to centre of supports should not exceed 12 times the depth from the underside of the joist to the top of the structural concrete.

- Right (Ans)
- Wrong

241.The rolled steel section used in cased beam has width *B* mm and diameter *D* mm. The minimum width of the finished cased beam is given by

- (
*B*+ 50 mm) - (
*B*+ 100) mm (Ans) - (
*B*+*D*+ 100) mm - 2 (
*B*+*D*) mm

242.Which of the following statement is correct ?

- Plate girders are deep structural members subjected to transverse loads.
- Plate girders consist of plates and angles riveted together
- Plate girders are economically used for spans upto 100 mm in building construction.
- All of the above (Ans)

243.The vertical plate of a plate girder is termed as

- Web plate (Ans)
- Flange plate
- Cover plate
- None of these

244.A web plate is called stiffened, when the ratio of clear depth to thickness of web is greater than

- 55
- 65
- 75
- 85 (Ans)

245.The distance between C.G. of compression flange and C.G. of tension flange of a plate girder, is known as

- Overall depth
- Effective depth (Ans)
- Clear depth
- Economical depth

246.In general, the depth of plate girder is kept as…………….of span.

- 1/5 to 1/8
- 1/8 to 1/10
- 1/10 to 1/12 (Ans)
- 1/12 to 1/16

247.The clear depth of a plate girder is the

- Depth between outer surface of flanges
- Distance between C.G. of compression flange and C.G. tension flange
- Distance between vertical legs of flange angles at the top and at the bottom, in case horizontal stiffeners are not used (Ans)
- Depth which gives minimum weight of plate girder

248.When the depth of plate girder is less than 75 cm, then such girders are known as

- Deep plate girders
- Shallow plate girders (Ans)
- Economical plate girders
- None of these

249.A steel welded plate girder is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 1500 kN –m. If the maximum permissible bending stress is 165 N/mm^{2}, then the most economical depth of the girder will be

- 600 mm
- 800 mm
- 1000 mm (Ans)
- 1200 mm

250.When the depth of a girder is atleast eight times the depth of vertical leg of the flange angles, such girders are known as shallow plate girders.

- Yes (Ans)
- No

251.The weight of a plate girder varies 1 percent for……………variation in the depth of the girder.

- 5%
- 10% (Ans)
- 15%
- 20%

252.The economical depth of a plate girder is assumed 15 to 20 percent less than the calculated value.

- Agree (Ans)
- Disagree

253.In a plate girder bridge, the thickness of web is less than d / 200, where d is the unsupported depth of web. The web plate should be provided with.

- Vertical stiffeners (Ans)
- Horizontal stiffeners
- End stiffeners
- Both vertical and horizontal stiffeners

254.In a plate girder, the vertical stiffners are provided when the ratio of clear depth to the thickness of web eceeds

- 50
- 65
- 75
- 85 (Ans)

255.The allowable shear stress in stiffened webs of mild steel beams decreases with

- Decrease in the spacing of the stiffeners
- Increase in the spacing of the stiffeners (Ans)
- Decrease in the effective depth
- Increase in the effective depth

256.In a plate girder, the vertical stiffeners are provided at spacing not greater than……………..and not less than 0.33 *d *.

- 5
*d* - 75
*d* - 25
*d* - 5
*d*(Ans)

Where *d = *distance between flange angles

257.The length of outstanding leg of vertical stiffener may be taken equal to 1/20th of clear depth of girder *plus* 50 mm.

- Correct
- Incorrect (Ans)

258.A welded steel plate girder consisting of two flange plates of 350 mm * 16 mm and a web plate of 1000 mm * 6 mm requires

- No stiffeners
- Vertical stiffeners
- Intermediate vertical stiffeners (Ans)
- Vertical and horizontal stiffeners

259.Horizontal stiffeners, in addition to Vertical stiffeners, are provided on the web of a plate girder, when the ratio of clear depth to the thickness of web exceeds

- 50
- 100
- 150
- 200 (Ans)

- Intermediate vertical stiffeners are provided in plate girders to

- Eliminate web buckling (Ans)
- Eliminate local buckling
- Transfer concentrated loads
- Prevent excessive deflection

261.At a section along the span of a welded plate girder, where web is spliced, the bending moment is *M*. If the girder has top flange, web and bottom flange plates of equal area, then share of the bending moment which would be taken by the splice plates would be

*M*(Ans)*M*/3*M/7**M/13*

- Horizontal stiffeners in plate girders are used to

- Increase the bending strength of web
- Increase the shear capacity of the web
- Prevent local buckling of the web (Ans)
- Prevent local buckling of the flange

263.At least one Horizontal stiffener should be placed in the plate girder in which the thickness of the web is less than

*d*/200 (Ans)*d*/100*d*/60*d*/4

where *d* = Depth of the web

- Intermediate vertical stiffeners in plate girders need to be provided if the depth of the web exceeds

- 50
*t*_{w} - 85
*t*(Ans)_{w } - 125
*t*_{w} - 175
*t*_{w}

Where *t _{w } *= thickness of the web.

265.Gantry girders are designed to resist

- Lateral load
- Longitudinal loads
- Lateral and Longitudinal loads
- Lateral, Longitudinal and vertical loads (Ans)

266.Vertical stiffeners in plate girders are provided

- To increase bearing strength of web
- To prevent local buckling of the flange
- To prevent local buckling of the web (Ans)
- None of these