Building Construction

  1. What is bearing capacity of soil?

Ans – It is the maximum load per unit area which the soil or rock can carry without yielding, displacements and deformation is known as the bearing capacity of soil or rock.

  1. What is ultimate bearing capacity of soil?

Ans – The intensity of load which causes soil rapture or shear failure and lateral displacement resulting in rapid sinking of the loaded area into the ground, is expressed as ultimate bearing capacity of soil.

  1. What are the main factors of foundation settlement?

Ans – The main factors are as follows,

  1. The soil just below the footing gets compressed
  2. The high concentrated stresses cause shear failure and displacement.

4. Why do some times structure fails?

Ans – The failure of structures occurs due to unequal settlement of the structure foundation.When a portion of the building is on a compressible stratum and tyhe remaining portions rest on a firm soil strata , the compressible soil settle in due course of time and ultimately the structure fails.

5. Why Plate load test carried out?

Ans – Plate load test is carried out for determining the ultimate bearing capacity of soil and a settlement under a given load.

6. What is shallow foundation? and what are the types.

Ans –  When the foundation is just below the lowest part of the superstructure, it is known as shallow foundation.

Spread foundation, Grillage foundation,Eccentrically loaded foundation, Combined footing, Raft foundation.

7. What is raft foundation?

Ans- Raft foundation is basically thick reinforced concrete slab covering the entire area of the bottom portion of the superstructure.

8. What are the qualities of black cotton soil?

Ans – Black cotton soil changes its volumetric properties with respect to change of atmospheric condition. It swells excessively when wet and shrinkage excessively when dry condition.The presence of finely graded clay particles in black cotton soil provides the property of swelling when they come in contact with water.

9. What are the dimension of crack in the black cotton soil?

Ans – The crack in black  cotton soil some time appear 15cm to 20 cm wide and 2.5 M to 4 M deep.

10. What type of foundations are most suitable for black cotton soil ?

Ans- The under reamed pile is most suitable foundation for black cotton soil.

11. What is the centre to centre distance of unreamed pile?

Ans- The centre to centre distance of unreamed pile is normally kept not less than two times diameter of pile.

12. What is Capping Beam?

Ans- It is basically a horizontal beam connected through top of the unreamed pile for safe distribution of load of structureto the foundation, is defined as capping beam.

13. What is the minimum distance provided in caping beam and the ground?

Ans- Its normally kept 80 cm.