**Fluid
Mechanics Engineering**

Basics of Fluid Mechanics

The fundamental fluid mechanic principles are very much useful in a various of ways. As an example, the Ideal Gas Law can be used to calculate the density of air and other type of gases at several temperatures and atmospheric pressures.

The diversified applications of fluid mechanics and hydraulics engineering in civil engineering in addition transportation of fluids inside the pipes and in open channels, as well as measurement of flow for both the pipes and open channels also. That areas of application are used a various of calculations for design and for analysis of fluid.

Calculations for pipe flow

Gas and liquids are normally transmitted through pipes for a wide several of applications. Civil engineers need to be compatible to calculate

- The specific size of pipe needed for a given flow rate data and available pump head,
- The head loss due to a known flow rate through a pipe,
- The rate of flow of fluid through a specified pipe with a given value head loss.

These topic represent the calculation technique and the equations to be used for each of these types of calculations, as well as different example of calculations.

In case of open type channel flow, a free liquid surface which is open to atmospheric pressure condition, so that the driving force for the flow is gravity, rather than any pressure difference as in the pipe flow. Several examples of open channel flow which include flow in rivers, canal and streams, in storm sewers, in high drainage and irrigation channels, and in artificially man-made open channels such as those which used in the projects of wastewater treatment plants. The Uniform open channel flow situation occurs whenever a constant flow rate passes through any channel with constant downward slope, constant surface roughness of channel, and constant shape and size of channel. In these topic the use of the Manning equation for uniform open channel type flow, including the methodical calculation of the hydraulic radius of channel, determination of the flow rate of fluid in a particular given channel at a known depth of flow and determination of the normal depth of flow of fluid, in case of a given channel and rate of flow.

Measurment of Open Channel Flow

Weirs, flumes are the most common type arrangement for measuring of flow rate in open channels condition. The topic include necessary information about sharp crested weir, rectangular and V-notch weirs, broad crested weirs, and Parshall flumes etc.

Measurement in Pipe Flow

Largely used of flow measurement device for pipe flow is differential flow meter, including the flow nozzle, orifice, and venturi meters mouthpiece etc. These meters are used a constraction in the flow area to increase the fluid velocity on open out position and as a result it decrease the fluid pressure. The exact amount of pressure which decrease can then also be measured and used to calculate the flow rate of fluid. Now descriptive material, equations, and different example calculations are included for flow nozzle, orifice, as well as venturi meters, along with the information about pitot tubes, rotameters, and magnetic type flow meters.

Definition of Hydraulic Jumps and Supercritical Open Channel Flow

The Hydraulic jumps specially occur to make a transition from supercritical flow to subcritical flow condition on a channel which isn’t totally correct enough to maintain supercritical flow condition. In this topic we will provide the background information about subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow type, hydraulic jump calculations, and calculation process of parameters like critical depth and critical slope for open channel type flow.