ADVANCED SURVEYING
1. If the equatorial distance between two meridians is 100 km, their distance at 60^{o }latitude will be

1000 km

600 km

800 km

500 km (Ans)

400 km
2. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following. In a spherical triangle

every angle is less than two right angles

sum of the three angles is equal to two right angles (Ans)

sum of the three angleless than six right angles and greater than two right angles

if the sum of any two sides is ꙥ, the sum of the angles opposite them is also ꙥ

sum of any two sides is greater than the third.
3. According to Napier’s Rules of circular parts for a right angled triangle, sine of middle part equals the product of

tangents of two adjacent parts

sines of two adjacent parts

cosines of two adjacent parts

cosines of two opposite parts

both (a) and (b) above (Ans)
4. In a spherical triangle ABC ,right angled at C, sin b equals

sin a cos A

cos a sin A

tan a cot A (Ans)

cot A tan a

none of these
5. In a spherical triangle ABC ,right angled at C, sin b equals to

sin c sin B (Ans)

cos a cos B

tan c tan B (Ans)

sin c cos B

cos c sin B
6. If E is the spherical excess and R the radius of the earth, the surface area of the triangle, is

ꙥR^{2}E/ 90^{o}

ꙥR^{2}E/ 180^{o }(Ans)

ꙥR^{2}E/ 270^{o}

ꙥR^{2}E/ 360^{o}
7.If S is the sum of three angles of a spherical triangle, the spherical excess equals

S – 90^{o}

S – 180^{o} (Ans)

S – 270^{o}

S – 360^{o}
8. The greate circule whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the earth, is called

equator

terrestrial equator
 0^{o }latitude
 all the above (Ans9. The meridian of a place is
 a great circle passing through the place and the poles
 a great circle whose plane is perpendicular to the axis of rotation and it also passes through the place
 a semicircle which passes through the place and is terminated at the poles (Ans)
 an arc of the great circle which passes through the place and is perpendicular to the equator10. Latitude of a place is the angular distance from
 Greenwich to the place
 equator to the poles
 equator to the nearer pole
 equator to the nearer pole along the meridian of the place
 none of these (Ans)11. Longitude of a place is the angular distance between the meridian of the place and
 the standard meridian
 the international date line
 that of Greenwich
 both (a) and (c) of above (Ans)12. Longitude are measured from 0^{o }to
 180^{o }eastward
 180^{o }westward
 180^{o }east or westward (Ans)
 360^{o }eastward
 360^{o }westward13. International dateline is located along
 standard meridian
 Greenwich meridian
 equator
 180^{o }longitude (Ans)
 none of these14. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following
 latitudes north of the equator are taken as positive
 latitudes south of the equator are taken as negative
 longitudes east of Greenwich are taken as negative (Ans)
 longitudes west of Greenwich are taken as positive
 both (a) and (d) of the above15. Places having same latitude
 lie on the parallel of the latitude
 are equidistant from the nearer pole
 are equidistant from both the poles
 are equidistant from the equator
 all the above (Ans)16. The length of a parallel of λ latitude between two meridians is equal to difference in longitudes multiplied by
 sin λ
 cos λ (Ans)
 tan λ
 cot λ17. Pick up the correct statement from the following
 one degree of longitude has greatest value at the equator (Ans)
 one degree of longitude has greatest value at the poles
 one degree of latitude decreases from the equator to the poles
 one degree of latitude has greatest value at the poles18. A nautical mile is
 one minute arc of the great circle passing through two points
 one minute arc of the longitude
 6080 ft
 1855.109 m
 all the above (Ans)19. The longitudes of two places at latitude 60^{o }N are 93^{o}
E and 97^{o }w. Their departure is
 5100 nautical miles
 5700 neutical miles (Ans)
 120 neutical miles
 500 neutical miles
 none of these20. Pick up the correct statement from the following. The difference between the longitudes of the places is obtained
 by subtracting their longitudes if places are in the same hemisphere
 by adding their longitudes if places are in the different hemispheres
 by subtracting the sum of their longitudes exceeding 180^{o }from 360^{o }if places are in different hemispheres (Ans)
 all the above 21. The shortest distance between two places measured along the surface of the earth , is
 length of the equator between their longitudes
 length of the parallel between their longitudes
 length of the arc of the great circle passing through them (Ans)
 none of these22. Pick up the correct statement from the following:
 centre of the celestial sphere is taken as the position of the observer
 centre of the celestial sphere is taken as the centre of the earth
 stars move and maintain their relative positions
 celestial bodies through fixed, appear to revolve from east to west round the celestial pole.
 All the above (Ans)23. The zenith is the point on the celestial sphere
 east of observer
 west of observer
 north of observer
 south of observer (Ans)
 above the observer.24. The point on the celestial sphere vertically below the observer’s position, is called
 zenith
 celestial point
 nadir (Ans)
 pole25. The plane at right angle to the zenith nador line and passing through the centre of the earth, is called
 rational horizon
 true horizon
 celestial horizon
 all the above (Ans)26. The circle in which a plane tangent to the earth’s surface at the point of observation, intersects the celestial sphere, is called
 visible horizon
 sensible horizon (Ans)
 celestial horizon
 true horizon
 none of the above 27. Pick up the correct statement from the following :
 north end of the polar axis is known as north pole
 south end of the polar axis is known as south pole
 point where polar axis when produced northward intersects the celestial sphere, is known as north celestial pole
 point where polar axis when produced southward intersects the celestial sphere, is known as south celestial pole
 all the above (Ans)28. The great circle along which the sum appears to trace on the celestial sphere with earth as centre during the year, is called
 equator
 celestial equator
 ecliptic (Ans)
 none of these29. The angle between the plane of the equator and the plane of the ecliptic, is known as obliquity of the ecliptic and its value is
 22^{o}30′
 23^{o}27′ (Ans)
 23^{o}30′
 24^{o}0′30. At the first point of Aeries, the sun moves
 northward
 southward
 from south to north of the equator (Ans)
 from north to south of the equator31. The point at which sun’ s declination changes from north to south, is known as
 first point of Aeries
 first point of Libra
 vernal equinox
 autumnal equinox
 both (b) and (d) of the above (Ans)32. The position of the sun when its north declination is maximum is known as
 venal equinox
 autumnal equinox
 summer solstice (Ans)
 winter solstice33. The declination and right ascension of the sun are each equal to zero on
 March 21 (Ans)
 June 21
 September 21
 December 2234. The declination and right ascension of the sun becomes 23^{o}27′ N and 90^{o }respectively on
 March 21
 June 21 (Ans)
 September 21
 December 2235. The declination and right ascension of the sun becomes 23^{o}27′ N and 270^{o }respectively on
 March 21
 June 21
 September 21
 December 22 (Ans)36. The sun’s declination remains north between
 March 21 to June 21
 June 21 to September 21
 September 21 to December 21
 December 21 to March 21
 both (a) and (b) of above (Ans)37. The great circle which passes through the zenith, nadir and the poles, is known as
 meridian (Ans)
 vertical circle
 prime vertical
 none of these38. The prime vertical passes through
 the east point of the horizon
 the west point of the horizon
 the zenith point of the obsever
 the nadir point of horizon
 all the above (Ans)39. The latitude of the observer’s position, is
 elevation of the elevated pole
 declination of the observer’s zenith
 angular distance along the observer’s meridian between equator and the observer
 north or south according as the observer is north of equator or south of equator
 all the above (Ans)40. The altitude of a heavenly body is its angular distance, measured on the vertical circle passing through the body, above
 equator
 horizon (Ans)
 pole
 none of these41. The angular distance of a heavenly body from the equator, measured along its meridian, is called
 declination (Ans)
 altitude
 zenith distance
 colatitude42. The angle between the observer’s meridian and declination circle of a heavenly body, is known as
 hour angle (Ans)
 right ascension
 declination
 azimuth43. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following. The angular distance of heavenly bodies on observer’s meridian measured from the pole, is
 codeclination (Ans)
 coaltitude
 colatitude
 polar distance
 none of these44. Right ascension of a heavenly body is its equatorial angular distance measured
 westward from the first point of Libra
 eastward from the first point of Aeries (Ans)
 westward from the first point of Aeries
 eastward from the first point of Libra45. Latitude of the observer’s position is equal to altitude of
 north pole
 pole star
 celestial pole (Ans)
 all the above46. The position of a heavenly body on the celestial sphere can be completely specified by
 its altitude and azimuth
 its declination and hour angle
 its declination and right ascension
 all the above (Ans)47. The most convenient coordinate system for specifying the relative positions of heavenly bodies on the celestial sphere, is
 altitude and azimuth system
 declination and hour angle system
 declination and right ascension system (Ans)
 declination and altitude system
 azimuth and declination system48. Circumpolar stars
 rotate round the north pole
 rotate round the celestial pole
 remain always above the horizon (Ans)
 are seldom seen near the pole star
 none of these49. For any star to be a circumpolar star, its
 declination must be 0^{o}
 declination must be 90^{o}
 distance from the poe must be less than the latitude of the observer (Ans)
 hour angle must be 180^{o}50. The altitude of a circumpolar star is maximum when it is
 at east elongation
 at upper culmination (Ans)
 at west elongation
 at lower culmination51. If θ and δ be the latitude of an observer and declination of a heavenly body respectively, the upper culmination of the body will be south of zenith if its zenith distance, is
 δ – θ (Ans)
 θ – δ
 θ + δ
 θ + δ/252. A star may culminate at zenith if its declination is
 greater than the longitude of the place
 less than the latitude of the place
 equal to the latitude of the place (Ans)
 none of these53. If a star whose declination is 60^{o} N culminates at zenith, its altitude at the lower culmination, is
 10^{o}
 20^{o}
 30^{o }(Ans)
 40^{o}
 60^{o}54. the altitudes of a circumpolar star at culminations are 70^{o }and 10^{o }, both culminations being north of zenith. The latitude of the place,is
 80^{o}
 70^{o}
 60^{o}
 50^{o}
 40^{o }(Ans)55. In Q.NO.54, declination of the star, is
 80^{o}
 70^{o}
 60^{o }(Ans)
 50^{o}
 40^{o}56. The polaris remains below horizon at
 10^{o} N
 50^{o} N latitude
 equator
 5^{o} S latitude (Ans)57. The sidereal day is the time interval between two successive upper transits of
 mean sun
 first point of Aries (Ans)
 first point of Libra
 the polar star
 moon58. Pick up the correct statement from the following:
 sidereal time at any instant is equal to the hour angle of the first point of Aries
 local sidereal time of any place is equal to the right ascension of its meridian
 sidereal time is equal to the right ascension of a star at its upper transit
 all the above (Ans)59. Equation of time which is the difference between apparent solar time and mean solar time at any instant, vanishes during one year
 once
 twice
 thrice
 four times (Ans)
 five times60. The true and mean suns occupy the same meridian at the same time on
 April 15
 June 14
 September 1
 December 25
 all the above (Ans) 61. The difference in longitude of two places expressed in time is equal to the difference in their
 sidereal time
 apparent solar time
 mean solar time
 all the above (Ans)62. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following:
 apparent solar time is measured from the lower transit of the true sun
 mean solar time is measured from the lower transit of the mean sun
 sidereal time is measured from the upper transit of the first point of Aries (Ans)63. The hour angle of the heavenly body for Greenwich meridian equals the hour angle of the body for any other meridian + longitude:
 mean sun
 true sun
 vernal equinox
 star
 all the above (Ans)64. With standard meridian as 82^{o}30′ E the standard time at longitude 90^{o} E is 8 h 30 m. The local mean time at the place will be
 7 h 00 m
 7 h 30 m
 8 h 00 m
 8 h 30 m
 9 h 00 m (Ans)65. G.M.T. Corresponding to given mean time, equals
 L.M.T. – East longitude in time (Ans)
 L.M.T. + East longitude in time
 L.M.T. – West longitude in time
 none of these66. In a tropical year, the number of sidereal days, are
 365
 365.2224
 365.2422
 366.2422 (Ans)
 366.222467. In a tropical year, the number of sidereal days, are
 one less than mean solar days
 one more than mean solar days (Ans)
 equal to mean solar days
 none of these 68. At eastern elongation, the pole star moves
 eastward
 westward
 northward (Ans)
 southward69. At western elongation, the pole star moves
 eastward
 westward
 northward
 southward (Ans)70. At upper culmination, the pole star moves
 eastward
 westward (Ans)
 northward
 southward71. At lower culmination, the pole star moves
 eastward (Ans)
 westward
 northward
 southward 72. If a is the observed altitude, the refraction correction in seconds, is
 58” cot a (Ans)
 58” tan a
 58” sin a
 58” cos a 73. Pick up the correct statement from the following:
 refraction correction is zero when the celestial body is in the zenith
 refraction correction is 33′ when the celestial body is on the horizon
 refraction correction of celestial bodies depends upon their altitudes
 all the above (Ans)74. The correction for parallax, is
 – 8”.8 cos a
 + .8” sin a
 + 8” .8 cos a (Ans)
 – 8” .8 cos a75. Pick up the correct statement from the following:
 correction for refraction is always negative
 correction for parallax is always positive
 correction for semidiameter is always negative (Ans)
 correction for dip is always negative
 none of these76. Pick up the correct statement from the following:
 ursa minor’s remains always north of pole star
 polar star remains always north of polaris
 polaris remains always north of ursa minor’s
 ursa minor’s pole star and polaris are the names of the same star (Ans)77. The polaris describes a small circle round the pole whose radius is approximately
 1^{o }(Ans)
 2^{o}
 3^{o}
 4^{o}78. If the altitudes of a star at its upper and lower transits are 60^{o}30′ and 19^{o}30′ respectively, the latitude of the place, is
 30^{o}
 35^{o}
 40^{o }(Ans)
 45^{o} 79. The latitude of a place was obtained by subtracting the zenith distance of a star from its declination, the observed star was between
 horizon and equator
 equator and zenith
 zenith and pole
 pole and horizon (Ans)80. The latitude of a place was obtained by subtracting the declination of a star from its zenith distance, the observed star was between
 horizon and equator (Ans)
 equator and zenith
 zenith and pole
 pole and horizon81. Polaris is usually observed for the determination of the latitude when it is
 at culmination (Ans)
 at elongation
 neither at cilmination nor at elongation
 either at cilmination or at elongation82. Polaris is usually observed for the determination of the azimuth when it is
 at culmination
 at elongation (Ans)
 neither at cilmination nor at elongation
 either at cilmination or at elongation83. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following. High oblique photographs
 may have tilt up to 30^{o}
 may include the image of the horizon
 may not include the image of the horizon
 none of these (Ans)84. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following
 Aerial photographs may be either vertical or oblique
 vertical photographs are taken with the axis of camera pointing vertically downward
 vertical photographs are used for most accurate maps
 on oblique photographs, scale variation is larger as compared to that of vertical photographs
 all the above (Ans)85. The point where a vertical line through the optical centre of the camera lens intersects the ground, is known as
 ground principle point
 ground plumb point (Ans)
 isocentre
 perspective centre86. The foot of the perpendicular on the picture plane through the optical centre of the camera lens, is known as
 isocentre
 principle point (Ans)
 perspective centre
 plumb line87. The point on the photograph where bisector between the vertical line through optical centre of the camera lens and the plate perpendicular meets, is known as
 isocentre (Ans)
 principle point
 perspective centre
 plumb point88. Homologous point is
 ground isocentre
 photo principle point
 ground principle point
 all the above (Ans)89. If f is the focal length of the camera lens and θ is the angle of tilt, the distance of the plumb point from the principle point will be
 f sin θ
 f cos θ
 f tan θ (Ans)
 f sec θ90. The ratio of distances of the plumb point and isocentre from the principle point of a vertical photograph, is
 1
 2 (Ans)
 3
 1/2
 1/291. From the principle point the horizon point lies on the principal line at a distance of
 f sin θ
 f cos θ
 f tan θ (Ans)
 f cot θ92. The product of the distances of plumb point and horizon point of a vertical photograph from its principal point, is
 f^{2 }(Ans)
 2f^{2}
 3f^{2}
 1/2f^{2}
 1/3f^{2}93. the height displacement on a vertical photograph
 increases as the horizontal distance increases from the principal point
 increases as the ground elevation increases
 decreases as the flying height increases
 all the above (Ans)94. On vertical photographs, height displacement is
 positive for points above datum
 negative for points below datum
 zero for points vertically below the air station
 all the above (Ans)95. If the image of a triangulation station of R.L.500 m is 4 cm from the principal point of a vertical photo taken from an altitude of 2000 m, above datum, the height displacement will be
 2 mm
 4 mm
 6 mm
 8 mm
 10 mm (Ans)96. The relation between the air base(B), photographic base(b), flying height (H) and the focal length(f) of a vertical photograph, is
 B = bH/f (Ans)
 B = f/bH
 B = b/fH
 B = H/bf97. The normal longitudinal overlap is generally kept
 50 %
 60 % (Ans)
 70 %
 75 %98. The net ground area of a vertical photograph 20cm * 20cm on scale 1 : 10000 having overlaps 60 % and 30 %, is
 0.50 sq km
 0.56 sq km
 0.60 sq km
 0.64 sq km (Ans)99. If 16 flight lines are run perpendicular to an area 30 km wide, their spacings on a photographical map on scale 1:50000, will be
 1 cm
 2 cm
 3 cm
 4 cm (Ans)
 5 cm100. The maximum error in radial line assumption, is
 (h/H)f tan θ (Ans)
 (h/H)f^{2} tan θ
 (h/H)f^{2} sin θ
 (h/H)f cos θ101. If the general ground level of any area is 10 % of the flying height, the principal points may be used as the centres of radial directions for small scale mapping even in tilted photograph upto
 1^{o}
 2^{o}
 3^{o} (Ans)
 4^{o}102. In a truely vertical photograph
 principal point coincides the isocentre
 isocentre coincides the plumb point
 plumb point coincides the principal point
 principal point, isocentre and plumb point coincide
 all the above (Ans)103. Pick up the incorrect statement from the following :
 in truely vertical photographs without relief angles are true at the plumb point
 in tilted photographs without relief, angles are true at the isocentre
 in tilted photographs with relief, angles are true at the principal point (Ans)
 none of these104. The distance between the minor control point and the principal point should be equal to
 base line of the left photograph of stereopair
 base line of the right photograph of stereopair
 sum of the base line of stereo pair
 mean of the base lines of the stereo pair (Ans)105. The slotted template method
 is prepared, by graphical method
 is suitable for large areas with less control
 is rapid and accurate
 may be done on any scale
 all the above (Ans)106. Parallax bar measures
 parallax
 height
 parallax difference (Ans)
 height difference107. The difference of height of two points whose parallax difference is 0.8 mm on a pair of stereo pair taken from a height H is 100 m. If mean photo base is 95.2 mm, the flying height is
 8000 m
 10000 m
 12000 (Ans)
 14000 m108. The stereo plotting instruments are generally manufactured on the principle of
 optical projection
 optical mechanism projection
 mechanical projection
 all the above (Ans)109. α and β are the angles subtended by a point of elevation h at their air station with respective plumb points. Photo scale and focal length of the lens being S and f respectively. Parallax displacement of the point due to relief, is
 h tan α/S
 h tan β/S
 h(tan α + tan β)/S (Ans)
 h(tan α – tan β)/S110. The displacement of the pictured position of a point of h elevation on a vertical photograph taken with a camera of 30 cm focal length, from an altitude of 3000 m, is
 4.4 mm
 5.5 mm
 6.5 mm
 7.5 mm (Ans)
 10 mm111. Rotation of the camera at exposure about its vertical axis, is known as
 swing (Ans)
 tilt
 tip
 none of these112. Rotation of the camera at exposure about horizontal axis normal to the line of flight, is known as
 swing
 tilt
 tip (Ans)
 none of these113. Rotation of the camera at exposure about the line of flight, is known as
 swing
 tilt (Ans)
 tip
 none of these114. The rate of change of parallax dp/dh with respect to change in h, may be expressed as
 fB(Hh)
 fB(Hh)^{2} (Ans)
 fB(H+h)
 fB(H+h)^{2}115. The difference of parallax for a given difference in elevation is independent of
 focal length of the camera
 overall size of the photo graphs
 percentage of overlap
 all the above (Ans)116. The parallax equation Δp = (BmΔh/Hh) is applicable to entire overlap of the photographs only if parallax is measured
 normal to base line
 parallel to base line (Ans)
 both (a) and(b)
 neither (a) nor (b)117. Assuming human normal vision distance 25 cm, smallest measurable angle 20”, and introcular distance 6.5 cm, the smallest depth to be discerned is
 0.1 mm (Ans)
 0.5 mm
 1.00 mm
 1.1 mm118. To obtained photographs of an area of 1000 m average elevation, on scale 1:30000, with a camera of 30 cm focal length, the flying height is
 4000 m
 5000 m
 6000 m(Ans)
 7000 m119. Homologous points are
 opposite corners of a photograph
 nodal points of the camera lens
 corresponding points on the ground and photograph (Ans)
 plumb points of stereo pair of photographs120. The following points form a pair of homologous points:
 photo principal point and ground principal point
 photo isocentre and ground isocentre
 photo plumb point and ground plumb point
 all the above (Ans)121. A plate parallel is the line on the plane of the negative
 parallel to the principal line
 perpendicular to the principal line (Ans)
 along the bisector of the angle between the principal line and a perpendicular line through principal plane
 none of these122. For plane ground the scale of a vertical photograph will be same as that of a tiled photograph along the photo parallel through
 isocentre (Ans)
 plumb point
 principal point
 none of these123. If v,t and f/H are the ground speed of the aircraft, the shutter speed of the camera and the scale of the photograph respectively, then the amount of image displacement
 i = v.t.H/f
 i = v.f/t.H (Ans)
 i = v.t (f/H)
 i = tH/v.f124. the parallax of a point on the photograph is due to
 ground elevation
 flying height
 length of air base
 focal length of the camera
 all the above (Ans)125. The want of correspondence in stereo photographs
 is a good property
 is a function of tilt (Ans)
 is not affected by the change of flying height between photographs
 is minimum when θ is 3^{o}126. 23cm * 23cm photographs are taken from a flying height with a camera of focal length of 3600 m and 15.23 cm respectively. A parallax difference of 0.01 mm represents
 1 m (Ans)
 2 m
 3 m
 4 m
 5 m127. The rotation of aircraft about the line of flight, is designated by the letter
 ω, and is simetimes called ‘roll’ (Ans)
 φ, and is simetimes called ‘pitch’
 χ, and is simetimes called ‘swing’
 none of these128. The rotation of aircraft about Zaxis, is designated by the letter
 ω, and is simetimes called ‘roll’
 φ, and is simetimes called ‘pitch’
 χ, and is simetimes called ‘swing’ (Ans)
 none of these129. The rotation of aircraft about Yaxis, is designated by the letter
 ω, and is simetimes called ‘roll’
 φ, and is simetimes called ‘pitch’ (Ans)
 χ, and is simetimes called ‘swing’
 none of these130. If the distance between the projectors is altered by a movement along Xaxis of one projector,
 the length of the air base is increased
 the scale of the model is altered
 yparallax is not affected
 relative orientation is not affected
 all the above (Ans)131. By raising the zcolumn of right projector, maximum yparallax is introduced in the model at
 position 1
 position 2
 position 4
 position 6
 position 4 and 6 (Ans)132. By applying clockwise swing to right projector, maximum yparallax is introduced in the model at
 position 1 (Ans)
 position 2
 position 4
 position 6133. The movement of the projector in ydirection, introduces i the model a yparallax
 maximum at position 1
 maximum at position 2
 maximum at position 5 and 6
 maximum at position 3 and 4
 equally throughout the model (Ans)134. The method of surveying by triangulation was first introduced by the Dutchman Snell in
 1600
 1615 (Ans)
 1630
 1650
 1680135. In triangulation surveys
 the area is divided into triangular figures
 control stations are located from which detailed surveys are carried out
 sides are not measured excepting the baseline
 angular measurements are only resorted to
 all the above (Ans)136. Triangulation surveys
 planimetric control
 height control
 both planimetric and height control (Ans)
 none of these137. Triangulation surveys are carried out for locating
 control points for surveys of large areas
 control points for photogrammetric surveys
 engineering works, i.e. Terminal poibts of long tunnels, bridge abutments, etc.
 All the above (Ans)138. Invar tapes used for measuring base lines, is made of nickeliron alloy containing nickel
 24 %
 36 % (Ans)
 40 %
 60 %139. Limiting gradient for locating the base line on evenlysloping ground, is
 1 in 12 (Ans)
 1 in 10
 1 in 8
 1 in 6140. The correction applied to the measured base of length L is
 tension = (P – P_{S})L/AE
 sag = (L^{3}w^{2}/24P^{2}) where w is the weight of tape/m
 slope = (h^{2}/2L + h^{4}/8L^{3} ) where h is height difference of end supports
 reduction to mean sea level = Lh/R
 all the above (Ans)141. The negative sign is assigned to
 reduction to mean sea level
 correction for horizontal alignment
 correction for slope
 correction for slope
 all the above (Ans)142. The station where observations are not made, but the angles at the station are used in triangulation series, is known as
 satellite station
 subsidiary station
 pivot station (Ans)
 main station143. The station which is selected close to the main triangulation station, to avoid intervening obstruction, is not known as
 satellite station
 eccentric station
 false station
 pivot station (Ans)144. Systematic errors
 always follow some definite mathematical law
 can be removed by applying corrections to the observed values
 either make the result too great or too small
 are also known as cumulative errors
 all the above (Ans)145. accidental errors
 do not follow any definite mathemetical law
 cannot be removed by applying corrections to the observed values
 are generally small
 are also known as compensating errors
 all the above (Ans)146. The equation which is obtained by multiplying each equation by the coefficient of its unknowns and by adding the equations thus formed, is known as
 observation equation
 conditional equation
 normal equation (Ans)
 none of these147. In observations of equal precision, the most probable values of the observed quantities are those that render the sum of the squares of the residual errors a minimum, is the fundamental principle of
 gauss’ mid latitude formula
 delamber’s method
 legendr’s method
 least square method (Ans)148. The moon rotates round the earth once in every
 29 days
 29.35 days (Ans)
 29.53 days
 30 days149. The time interval between successive transits of the moon, is
 24 hours 10 minutes
 20 hours 25 minutes
 24 hours 50 minutes (Ans)
 23 hours 50 minutes
 23 hours 25 minutes 150. The solar tidal force divided by lunar tidal force is
 1/3
 1/2 (Ans)
 3/4
 5/4151. Spring tides are caused when
 sun and moon are in line with earth
 solar tidal force acts opposite to lunar tidal force
 solar tidal force and lunar tidal force both coincide (Ans)
 nine of these152. the station pointer is generally used in
 triangulation surveying
 astronomical surveying
 hydrographical surveying (Ans)
 photogrammetric surveying153. An aerial photograph may be assumed as
 parallel projection
 orthogonal projection
 central projection (Ans)
 none of these154. perspective centre relates to
 parallel projection
 orthogonal projection
 central projection (Ans)
 none of these155. The point where vertical line passing through the perspective centre intersects the plane of the photograph, is known as
 photo plumb point (Ans)
 plumb point
 nadir point
 isocentre
 none of these156. The orthogonal projection of the perspective centre on a tilted photograph, is called
 nadir
 isocentre
 principal point (Ans)
 plumb point157. The distance between the projection centre and the photograph, is called
 principal distance (Ans)
 principal line
 isocentre distance
 focal length158. The principal line is the line joining the principal point and
 nadir
 isocentre (Ans)
 perspective centre
 none of these159. The principal plane contains
 nadir point
 isocentre
 principal point
 principal axis and principal line
 all the above (Ans)160. To have greatest coverage of the area, the type of photography used, is
 high oblique (Ans)
 low oblique
 vertical
 none of these161. The coverage is least if photography is
 high oblique
 low oblique
 vertical (Ans)
 none of these162. H is the flying height above mean ground level and f is the principal distance of a vertical photograph. The mean scale of the photographs is
 H.f (Ans)
 H/f
 f/H
 H + f
 none of these163. The scale of the photography taken from a height of 300 m, with a camera of focal length 15cm, is
 1:10000
 1:15000
 1:20000 (Ans)
 1:30000164. The flying height of the camera is 1000 m above mean ground level, the distance of the top of a minar from a nadir point is 10 cm and the relief displacement of minar is 7.2 mm. The height of the minar, is
 52 m
 62 m
 72 m (Ans)
 82 m165. The relief displacement of minar 72 m high on photograph is 7.2 mm and its top appears 10cm away from principal point. The flying height of the camera, is
 500 m
 1000 m (Ans)
 1500 m
 2000 m166. The average eye base is assumed as
 58 mm
 60 mm
 62 mm
 64 mm
 72 mm (Ans)167. In field astronomy, the quantities observed are entirely
 lengths
 angles (Ans)
 heights
 all of these168. The main object of the astronomer to obtain
 astronomical latitude
 astronomical longitude
 astronomical bearing
 all of these (Ans)169. The nautical mile is the length of
 1 minute of latitude
 1 minute of longitude (Ans)
 1 degree of latitude
 1 degree of longitude170. If two points differing by 1^{o} of latitude and of the same longitude is 110 km apart on the earth, then two astronomical positions on the moon is about
 10 km
 25 km
 30 km (Ans)
 50 km171. Stellar astronomy deals with
 plane surveying
 geodetic surveying
 star observations (Ans)
 planet observations172. The nearest star is so far away from the earth that the directions to it from two diametrically opposites points on the earth deffers less than
 0.01 second
 0.001 second
 0.0001 second (Ans)
 none of these173. A star in northern sphere is said to transit
 when its altitude is maximum
 when its azimuth is 180^{o}
 when it is in south
 all the above (Ans)174. The angle between the axis of earth and the vertical at the station of observation is called
 astronomical latitude
 astronomical colatitude (Ans)
 codeclination of star
 declination of star175. The angle between the direction of star and the direction of earth’s axis of rotation is called
 codeclination (Ans)
 colatitude
 declination
 latitude176. When a star transits at the zenith
 the astronomical triangle becomes of the largest area
 the astronomical triangle reduces to an arc joining the pole and the zenith
 the angle of elevation of the star is 90^{o}
 all the above (Ans)